Mais pourquoi donc y a-t-il aussi peu de petites entreprises aux USA ? J’ai continué à réfléchir à la question. Du coup, je suis allé poster un commentaire sur le blog de Paul Krugman :
- En lisant les commentaires qu’avait suscités son billet, j’ai découvert que le problème de l’assurance santé est infiniment plus redoutable que ce que je pensais. Il y a des témoignages impressionnants de difficultés à s’assurer ou de problèmes parfois insolubles que posent l’adoption du statut d’indépendant ou l’entrée dans une petite entreprise.
- Mon explication est culturelle. Voici ce que dit mon commentaire, que je n’ai pas eu le courage de traduire (précision : quand je parle d’Europe du Sud, je ne pense pas à la France) :
There may also be cultural explanations: In Southern Europe small companies aim at their local market, they are run like families with a founding CEO who occupies a lot of functions (salesman, R and D, marketing, production manager, CFO…), they have very few (large) customers with whom they have a very old relationship based on mutual trust, there are no call for offers (customer and supplier tend to work like a champion and a coach). It is quite common that an experienced worker resigns from a plant, and founds a small workshop that does what he used to do in the plant. The plant gains a very flexible and highly motivated high quality subcontractor, whose costs may be less than what they used to be when he was an employee. In the USA companies tend to be much more ambitious, internationally minded, rationally organised with a lot of highly specialised management experts and low synergies between functions, customer / supplier relationship is competitive and contract based rather than cooperative and trust based, call for offers are very costly. This tends to entail higher costs, much more complex organisations, and probably large scale effects. France car industry has attempted to switch from the Southern European model to the American one. First car manufacturers squeezed their defenceless small subcontractors. They probably made large gains. Now these suppliers are dying. Tomorrow there may remain an oligopoly of multinationals (some of them being car manufacturers cf. Magna).
- Voir les commentaires faits par Minter Dial à mon billet initial.